Using political cartoons in development and human rights education
Political cartoons can be a particularly valuable resource for development and human rights education. They, at their best, encapsulate some very complex issues, different viewpoints and some of the contradictions which are a real part of many situations. They can make links between issues which can turn them inside out – this is one of the key strengths.
Political cartoons will often provide the stimulus to stop and think, to look sideways or look afresh at a particular issue. We hope that users of this section will find much to provide a focus for personal reflection. However, the main purpose of this introduction is to provide a few basic activities for the use of cartoons in discussion of human rights and development issues.
A word of warning may be necessary here! If you see education in general, or development or human rights education in particular, as a process of endorsing certain ‘acceptable’ ideas or viewpoints and rejecting others, rather than as a means of exploring, discussing and debating ideas and opinions as a means of encouraging people to make up their own minds, then don’t use cartoons – it is unlikely that they will provide enough opportunity for control!
Cartoons have a number of distinct advantages as a stimulus to group discussion about issues. They often contain a lot of information yet can be assimilated quite quickly. It is possible for people with a range of knowledge of the issues (or none at all) to respond to the same stimulus and for the discussion to reflect their level of experience. The humour of cartoons also contributes – laughter is important but humour can also disarm us of our assumptions and help us to look afresh as something. Many of the cartoons you might use as a stimulus, will be quite explicit in the main issues they bring to a groups agenda, they are at the very same time very open ended. They provide an opportunity for members of a group to explore those aspects they see as most important.
The activities below and in each of the following sections can be adapted to a wide range of learning situations. It is however important to note that we need to build up our skills in group discussion and debate and in using stimulus materials such as cartoons.
The learning skills that can be developed by using materials such as cartoons include:
- making careful observations
- acquiring information from a particular cartoon or set of cartoons
- analysing and evaluating information
- relating one’s own views to those in the cartoons
- recognising the value of different interpretations
- empathising with people/situations portrayed
- forming links between different ideas and cartoons
There is also a sense in which cartoons help us to laugh at ourselves, and our involvement, individually and as a society, in often, desperate situations. Perhaps this should also be identified as a skill.
Some basic ideas for using cartoons
Warming up – what does it say to you?
You could ask this question of any cartoon but there is a special value in asking it about one that is open to very wide interpretation such as those that follow immediately below.
A closer look – now you see it, now you don’t
There are a number of simple activities which encourage people to take a closer look at a cartoon and to say how they see it and the issues it raises.
For example… working in pairs, each with their own cartoon, they look at the cartoon without showing it to the other person. They then describe to each other what the cartoon is about and then compare the actual cartoons with their descriptions. How accurate was the description? What was left out? How is the cartoon different from the description offered?
Reading a cartoon
At an early stage it may be useful to take time out to discuss one or two cartoons and work on ‘reading’ them.
Ask small groups to look closely at the detail:
- What is the cartoon saying?
- What different interpretations of the cartoon might there be?
- What symbols are used?
- Who are the characters?
- What is suggested about the context of the cartoon?
Bring the groups together to share their discussions but try to steer the discussion away from the issues that arise and, instead, try to concentrate on how individuals ‘read’ the cartoon.
What’s the theme? – what are the issues?
When you introduce a theme to a group it is useful to find ways to explore what the group already knows about it and how best to build on this as a prelude to working more in depth on the issue.
Display a selection of, say, 15 cartoons and ask the group to look at them. Working in pairs or three’s, decide what main themes link them together. They could then group the cartoons together that highlight the issues best and arrange them in a poster for sharing with others.
Another useful way to introduce a collection of cartoons is to ask people to choose three cartoons from those on display which they liked most… or which say most to them about the issues being discussed. They could mark these with a sticker with their name on it. They could then pair up with someone who has chosen the same cartoon(s) and discuss their choice. Did they see similar or different things in the same cartoons?
This activity also has the advantage of mixing the group, reviewing the whole collection and working with some cartoons more closely. The pairs can then share some of their discussions with others and introduce one of the cartoons they chose.
Headlining… changing the context
Ask pairs to choose a cartoon around which they develop a headline or short article. If they use different headlines, does it influence how the cartoon comes across?
The pairs could then share their articles with the rest of the group. It may be useful to choose different cartoons and in this way raise a wide range of issues or choose the same one and explore the different ways it is worked into the article.
You could use a cartoon such as that below. The original cartoon said Luxembourg, Bruxelles and Strasbourg on the signposts… what would your group wish to put on the signs and why? What would the message(s) be?
Questioning and asking questions
It is valuable both as an introductory activity or when you are wanting to discuss more detailed issues to focus on one or two cartoons and make a more detailed study of them.
Give each pair a copy of a cartoon mounted on a large sheet of paper and ask them to write as many questions as they can relating to the cartoon. This encourages a closer look at detail as well as the cartoon as a whole. It is not necessary to be able to answer the questions, the process of asking them will provide a good stimulus to the discussion when they share their work with other groups.
Another approach which would help more detailed study of one cartoon is for you to pose the questions for the group to consider. In order to encourage a group to discuss the cartoon below, for example, you could ask questions such as the following:
This is a very effective activity to encourage groups to consider a small collection of cartoons [say nine] in detail. Give each group nine cartoons and ask them to order them in terms of those they feel raise the most important issues – to those that raise the least important. Alternatively you could ask pairs to rank the cartoons in terms of those they like most/least.
Using Photographs in Education
Photographs are a particularly valuable resource for encouraging groups and individuals to explore a range of issues in an easy and productive way and at an appropriate pace and level. Explore, share and use photos from our photobank as part of your lesson plans.
- Are open ended
- Can be read by everyone in their own way
- Do not require high levels of literacy
- Allow groups to determine for themselves what issues should be discussed
- Encourage groups and individuals to recognise that not everyone sees the world the same way
- Can help individuals clarify how they see the world and particularly how they see particular issues within it
- Allow for creative learning outside a fixed agenda
- Can challenge ideas and images
The activities described below have been developed to maximise participation and involvement and to provide opportunities for all to contribute. The activities are also designed to place equal value on everyone’s contribution while also heightening everyone’s consciousness.
Using Photographs as a Stimulus
Photographs can be used in a variety of ways but especially as a stimulus to creative thinking, discussion and debate. They are an excellent stimulus because they can stimulate individuals, small or larger groups and photographs can be used to encourage people to talk, explore, compare, debate, discuss and apply ideas and understandings. They can be used to explore how images are constructed, what choices and issues face photographers, how images can ‘lie’ or provide ‘partial’ understanding of, and access to issues. Some questions to consider:
What do I see and think?
- What do I see in an image?
- What key ideas or key words does the image suggest to me?
- What might the people in the image be thinking?
- How do I interpret the image?
- What does it make me think/feel?
How do others see the same image?
- What do they see?
- What similarities or differences do they see in the image(s)?
- Are our reactions different?
- How would others from different places see the same images?
- What can I see in the picture?
- What are they celebrating?
- What do their clothes and style suggest to me?
- What ages are they?
- What noises does the picture suggest?
- What music might be playing, if any?
Activities for Using Photographs
The following general activities are useful for introducing the photographs and enabling people to become familiar with them and what is happening in them. The activities are also useful for generating discussion and co-operation. Reviewing and describing photos is also important prior to identifying and discussing the issues and/or challenges they raise.
In using the pictures, you may find it more productive to have people work in pairs or small groups initially and then compare and contrast choices and descriptions in a larger group. This approach will maximise the value of the photos as well as discussion and debate.
Becoming familiar with the photographs and the issues
- Invite the group to look carefully at the whole set of photos (or any other set of photos you care to choose). Each individual or pair should pick one or two photos which they find particularly interesting or which raise important questions or issues for them.
- Participants then form small groups (of for example 4 or 6) and explain their choice to each other. Each small group then selects one or two photos from the group and explains their choice to the larger group. Each group does this in turn.
- This activity can be used to make a list of issues or questions that might need further study and discussion. A variation on this activity can be developed using the Stickers Activity (see below) – each individual or small group could choose a photo which raises questions about a specific issue, for example, human development or human rights.
- Use the information in the captions and the keywords to relate the chosen photos to the broader issues.
Describing and Labelling
- Divide the group into pairs and invite each pair to choose one photo and to then describe, in their own words, what is happening in the photo.
- Invite them to choose some keywords which best describe the photo (e.g. happy, sad, busy, singing, speaking, women, poverty, relaxed, hard-working etc.) Each pair can then share their description and keywords with the whole group.
- A list of group keywords can then be compiled and discussed:
- Are there words in common?
- Are the words largely positive or negative or a mixture of both?
- What was the basis for the choices made?
- Does anyone disagree with the labels chosen?
- What evidence is there in the photos for the labels?
- Is there agreement or disagreement as to what might be happening in the photos?
- Alternatively, each pair or group can display their photo on a piece of poster paper on the wall with a set of keywords describing the photo on stickers added to the poster. In this way, the entire set of photos can be displayed and described.
- Invite the whole group to look at all the posters and share agreements or disagreements on the words chosen to describe particular photos.
- The overall list of keywords could be used to initiate a discussion on our images of development or rights etc.
This activity is useful for introducing the whole pack as it encourages everyone to express their own view and opinions as well as suggesting issues for further enquiry. It is also a useful general activity for introducing a group to each other.
- Give each person 3 sticky labels and ask them to write their name on each label. Ask everyone to choose 2 or 3 photos that they like for whatever reason (this allows each person to ‘do their own thing’) and to put one of their stickers on those photos. Everyone can then find someone else in the group who has chosen the same photograph and discuss their choice.
- Invite each pair to then introduce and discuss their photo with the larger group. A whole group set of questions and issues for discussion can be compiled from this exercise.
Note: it might be useful to look at what photos were not chosen and why – it can lead to a discussion of some ‘sensitive’ issues such as prejudice, stereotyping (of different types), fear etc.
- Each group or pair can be invited to choose a photo and to then describe what might be happening in the picture through a story – this could include what happened before the photo was taken and what might happen afterwards. This activity is designed to encourage more detailed engagement with the issues etc.
Identifying and Discussing Issues
Once the group is familiar with the pictures and their content, it is easier to identify and discuss the issues that arise and the activities below will help in doing this. Choose one or two activities that best suit you or your group.
- Display the photos so that all can see them – make sure the number of each photo is visible. Invite each small group to rank their choice of four photos (by number) in a diamond pattern.
- Their ranking could be on the basis of those they like most/least or on the basis of which image surprises them most/least? Or which situation best/least illustrates human development or the relevance of Irish Aid in such a context?
- Again, each group should share their choice and the reasoning behind it with the larger group and similarities or differences between groups can then be explored.
- Give each group or pair a photograph – this could then be mounted on a larger piece of poster paper so that they can write around the edges. If this is not possible, the questions can be written on a separate piece of paper.
- Invite them to write as many questions as they can about the photo. Questions can be directly relevant to the photo or to issues raised by the photo. Encourage the group to ask questions that raise broader issues and challenges.
- The questioning process around each photo can then be displayed and shared with the larger group. A group list of the most challenging and interesting questions could then form the basis for further study and research.
What do you feel?
- Make a selection of photographs which, in your opinion, raise important or challenging questions. Display the photos and invite everyone, individually, to note those photos (identified by number) which raise important issues for them about human dignity, human development or human rights or the role of Irish Aid, etc.
- Working in small groups, individuals explain to each other:
- which photos they chose and why?
- what are they key questions they give rise to?
- are the issues chosen by different people the same or different?
- Each small group can then present the most important questions that they identified to the whole group.
- Working in pairs or small groups, invite everyone to choose a photo that poses an important challenge. The challenges could include the following:
- What challenges does the photo raise for those in the picture?
- What challenges does the photo raise for the societies or countries shown?
- What challenges does the photo raise for us here in Europe?
- The answers to these questions could then form the basis for additional debate and discussion focused on how such challenges might be met.
- Invite small groups to review the whole collection of photos and to divide them into different groups or clusters and to identify the issue or challenge which they photos in the cluster share. The clusters could be chosen for positive or negative reasons or because they have a common theme or challenge.
- Again, invite each group to share its choices with the larger group. In this way a list off issues for further exploration and discussion can be compiled.
Using Maps in Education
Mapping is about developing awareness not only of the shape of the physical world, such as continents and oceans, but also the shape of the world socially, economically and politically. They are essential to developing a sense of global literacy.
Making, reading, analysing and comparing maps are essential skills enabling us to read and understand the world and the forces that shape it physically, economically, socially and politically. Maps are particularly important in developing a global perspective and can demonstrate very clearly the North/South, First World/Third World divide.
How do maps work?
- Maps are pictorial representations of the shape of the world, its regions, countries, towns and their physical features. They can be drawn to any scale and can be used to present physical/environmental information as well as certain social, economic and political patterns.
- Maps allow us present information in a visual way and also help us to read about the world, understand spatial relations, size and proportion. Maps therefore can help us locate information and places and draw connections between the two.
- They can be presented on a local, regional or global scale and are a key to the development of overall global literacy.
A sample mapping activity – the world’s wealth and population
- In pairs give each student a copy of the proportional base map. Invite them to study the information on the map. Brainstorm their immediate reactions as a group. What does the map say about the shape of our world? What strikes them most about the distribution of world GNP? Do they have any comments to make about the relationship between population and GNP?
- Some useful work in interpreting the map could be done by identifying and commenting on the breakdown of world GNP by country groupings e.g. the most economically powerful countries, the middle income group of countries and the poorest. They could then discuss the potential causes of these disparities and use this activity as a lead in to later ones.
Using maps with graphs and charts
Although maps themselves are prime resources, they can be well supplemented by graphs and pie charts where information related to the map is presented alongside the map itself. Students need to become familiar with these kinds of tables to be able to more effectively interpret and relate information given on the map to each region. In many ways pie charts and graphs are maps in themselves as they are visual ways of presenting information requiring the students to read and locate information.
Statistics are sets of facts presented as figures or percentages that can be used as information in themselves or as a basis for analysis and/or comparison. Statistics are fundamental to understanding the scale of certain issues and also giving them a sense of proportion. They can assist us in our analysis of a particular issue at a given time and can also be used to compare things and make assessments.
Statistics can provide factual information on which interpretations and analysis can be based. Finding, compiling and interpreting statistics is also an important aspect of any study or investigation.
- Statistics can be both simple and complex. Initially students need to be facilitated in their interpretation through set tasks or questions. This is to ensure that they are reading the information correctly and that they are in a position to analyse and interpret this information critically. The sourcing of statistics is another important skill for students. They should be encouraged to examine a range of sources and be critical in their analysis.
- It can be useful to use and interpret two sets of statistics or charts and compare the information given on each and/or how they relate to each other and/or to something else they have read or studied.
- Students should be encouraged to use statistics in presenting arguments and debates about particular issues.
- There are a wealth of statistics that present issues from a global perspective. Students can quickly develop a sense of the scale of a problem or issue and more importantly key trends or patterns. Sourcing, reading, understanding and interpreting statistics of this kind can help students in developing a true sense of global literacy as well as challenging many of their perceptions of global issues and trends.
- Statistics appear in most geographical source materials. Being able to read and interpret statistics are essential to understanding and analysing information on maps, analysing case studies and reports etc. Students need statistical skills to understand much of the information they encounter.
The statistics presented throughout can be used in many of the ways described above.
For a range of useful and challenging statistics on development and human rights, visit the following websites:
- http://www.hri.ca – the human rights internet site
- http://www.envirolink.org – for information on environmental issues
- http://www.africanews.org – for information on Africa
- http://www.undp.org/undp/hdro – the office of the Human Development Report
A sample statistical activity – World Wealth and World Poverty
- In pairs get the students to identify the countries or regions that have the highest or lowest rates of poverty. Ask them to identify some of the problems that might arise from this situation – health, education or gender issues for example.
- What issues might be important in contributing to the growth or reduction in world poverty in different regions.
- In small groups ask the students to select one country or region and explore the details on poverty and wealth in that area through using the statistics available at the UNDP’s website related to the Human Development Report –http://hdr.undp.org/
Similar activities can be designed to explore other issues highlighted statistically in sections of the The World We’re In with their accompanying websites e.g. on population, on health etc.
[nextpage title=”International Reports”]
Obtaining up-to-date information, facts, figures as well as case studies and viewpoints on important current development and human rights issues has never been easier. Apart from being available on the Internet, such materials are easily accessed through a umber of important international reports which are published annually. This section reviews some of these reports and what is available in them and suggests some ways in which they might be of use. Some are available free on-line, others are found in public libraries – or ask for them to be ordered.
The United Nations Human Development Report (HDR)
The HDR is published every year. It is the most easily accessible and readable of all the international reports and contains a great amount of immediately useable information. The report is compiled by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and has been published since 1990. Each edition covers a particular theme. The theme for 2008 is “Fighting Climate Change” and is covered in depth with: facts and figures, case studies, individual viewpoints and arguments, projections and perceptions of the future. The materials are easy to use and are great for debates and discussions.
State of the World’s Children Report
Published by UNICEF, this report is particularly strong on presenting case study material around issues primarily, but not exclusively, affecting women and children. The report includes detailed statistics on the basics, but pays particular attention to the areas of nutrition, health, education, as well as other social development indicators. Also included are excellent historical reviews of key areas including the evolution of UN agreements, etc. Each year’s report emphasises a particular theme – for 2007 the theme is: “Women and Children: The Double Dividend of Gender Equality”, arguing “that investment in women’s rights will ultimately produce a double dividend: advancing the rights of both women and children.”
UNICEF also publishes an excellent and readily useable resource entitled “The Progress of Nations” which summarises advances and challenges in key areas of social development. http://www.unicef.org/pon00/
The World Development Report (WDR)
Each year since 1977, the World Bank has published its World Development Report which remains one of the main reference works on development, in particular its economic dimensions. While not easy to read or use, it is a makjor source of information, in particular the statistical information. WDR also focuses on an annual theme – for 2006 the theme is Equity and Development.
The Reality of Aid Report
The Reality of Aid report is published by a consortium of NGOs. Each report contains a review of aid facts and figures, essays on current issues and themes, and most importantly and unusually, a section on perspectives from the South (on aid) plus profiles of individual country aid programmes. The report’s real value lies in its critical analysis of official aid; its use of case studies and county profiles and diagrams and graphs. The theme for 2006: “Focus on Conflict, Security and Development Cooperation.”
Statistics on international aid are relatively easy to come by, as most official and voluntary aid agencies are anxious to promote themselves and their work. Information on official aid programmes can be obtained from the annual reports or the websites of government aid programmes for example:
- Figures for Irish Aid – www.irishaid.gov.ie
- DFID in the UK – www.dfid.uk
- Most of the government aid programmes can be found by searching the official government websites –www.gksoft.com/govt/en/
Voluntary aid agency figures on aid, etc. can be found in the annual reports of individual agencies on their individual websites. While there is no central website for Ireland, many of the big British agencies can be located throughwww.uk.oneworld.net/guides/aid
The main reference source for more detailed statistics is the annual Report of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) – and can be found at:http://www.oecd.org/document/62/0,3343,en_2649_33721_42195902_1_1_1_1,00.html
The OECD website address is www.oecd.org
OECD Factbook 2007 – Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics
This factbook was first published in 2005, and is available annually. The resource comprises statistical information for OECD member countries (limited non-member information) with indicators covering a wide range of areas: economy, agriculture, education, energy, environment, foreign aid, health and quality of life, industry, information and communications, population/labour force, trade and investment, taxation, public expenditure and Research & Development. Includes: indicators with descriptions, statistical tables, graphics, comments on comparability of data, an assessment of long-term trends, and a list of references for further information.
Annual Reports on the State of World Hunger
Each year, Bread for the World Institute in the United States publishes an excellent review on this most fundamental issue. The reports have been published since 1990/1991 and contain excellent and usable case studies and analyses. Particularly useful are the reviews of various regional situations as regards hunger. Each report contains a variety of essays on a particular theme and an update on global hunger by region. Some of the reports review world hunger from a variety of perspectives such as political and religious perspectives. See: www.bread.org/learn/hunger-reports/ to download the report.
State of the World’s Population
This is published annually by the United Nations Population Fund (www.unfpa.org) It contains facts and figures on current population statistics, including future population projections; case studies of specific programmes, issues and countries; and different perspectives on controversial issues.
The theme for the 2007 report is – Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth.
The World’s Women: Progress in Statistics
This is a periodic report from the United Nations Statistics Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). First published in 1990, the first 3 editions focussed on statistical trends in the situation of women. The 2005 edition is the fourth in the series and looks at national sex disaggregated information and focuses on progress rather than trends in statistics. The report focuses on sex-disaggregated statistics in the areas of health, education, work, violence against women, demographics, poverty, human rights and decision-making. While it looks academic and sometimes difficult to read, it is nonetheless full of useful and relevant materials on issues such as violence against women, power and decision-making, where statistics are particularly difficult to find.
[nextpage title=”Case Studies”]
- Case studies are useful ways of putting what might seem like abstract concepts into very real and concrete terms. Case studies are essential source materials for investigating a particular issue and/or region. By finding and reading case studies, students can begin to build their own picture of the issue for reference or further study.
- Case studies can be used as an information base. They can be examined both in terms of the information and the viewpoints they present. Students should be encouraged to consider both.
- Most case studies present a particular case example that can be used in any debate or discussion to present and/or strengthen an argument. Students should be encouraged to refer to particular case studies when presenting arguments.
As well as examining certain concepts through case studies, it would be useful to give the students the opportunity to do a case study themselves on a particular issue in their locality. The students need to consider what makes a good case study e.g. statistics, quotes, historical background, looking at things from a social, economic, and political perspective etc. It is important to note that both the content of the case study and how it is presented that are important.
Case Study Example: Women and Politics in Africa
Although women constitute half of the electorate in Africa and elsewhere, they had only 10% of the seats in the world’s parliaments and only 6% in national cabinets. Studies in Zimbabwe and Tanzania have shown that the number of women members of Parliament very rarely exceeds 10% despite the introduction of a quota system in Tanzania. This means that not only are women excluded from exercising political power, women’s issues and viewpoints are often absent from political decision making. However, it should be noted that in South Africa, 24% of those elected to parliament were women – one of the highest rates overall.
In many parts of Africa women are also discriminated against in legal matters. For example, in North Africa women married to foreigners cannot transfer their citizenship to their husbands, men can transfer it to their wives. In Botswana, women are still under the permanent guardianship of their husbands and cannot own property – discrimination against women in the ownership of land is widespread. Of the 41 UN members who have not signed the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against, 11 are African.
In conflict situations women are also particularly affected by violence both in war situations and even in their own households. Women and children have been particularly badly affected by recent wars and conflicts in the region and violence against women generally is widespread and in some cases is growing.
In contrast to this trend, women are increasingly playing a central role in many of the popular organisations that now play a major role in development throughout the continent. Women are very much to the fore in locally based organisations in agriculture, health, education and community development. This means that the power of the women’s movement in Africa will increase in future years.
Source: UNDP Human Development Report, 1995.
Either individually or in groups, consider the following questions:
- What is the focus of this case study?
- What figures are given in relation to the issue and why are they important?
- What main points is the author making?
- What other related issues about women?s participation does the author refer to?
- What human rights issues does this case study raise? Are there any important issues left out?
- Then consider whether or not they feel the role of women is an important development question – why? why not?
- Identify and discuss other issues that are important to look at in terms of the role of women e.g. health, education, work.
- Select one of these issues and compile their own case study from a particular country or region or globally. Use a range of sources if possible, statistics, interviews, research, reports etc.
In most respects it is still an unequal world.
[nextpage title=”Information Technology”]
Using the Internet in education has three main functions:
- Information: retrieving articles, journals, accessing statistics, linking with particular organisations and campaigns and significant information sources
- Sourcing: accessing different sources/perspectives, types of information through libraries, catalogues, lists of development experts, NGOs, etc.
- Key skills development: researching, retrieving, critical analysis, evaluating, communicating, fieldwork, organising information, etc.
The Internet can be used in the development of lesson/project plans, for resource material, planning workshops/presentations/debates and discussions. It can be used to join campaigns or organisations or to obtain documents and case studies. Some examples include:
Identifying up-to-date facts and figures on specific countries or topics, e.g.:
- Population growth – www.unfpa.org/swp/swpmain.htm
- Human development – http://hdr.undp.org/en/
- State of women worldwide – www.un.org/womenwatch
- General country statistics – www.cyberschoolbus.un.org/infonation/index.asp
Obtaining case studies/updates on particular issues or themes, e.g.:
- Street children in various countries – http://www.hrw.org/en/category/topic/children%E2%80%99s-rights/street-children
- Recent developments around Africa – www.allafrica.com
- Fair Trade – www.fairtrade.org.uk
Accessing background notes on specific issues prior to teaching them, e.g.:
- Environmental issues – www.unep.org/
- HIV/AIDS – www.unaids.org/en/
- State of the World’s Refugees – www.unhcr.org
Linking to specific campaigns, e.g.:
- Environment and development issues – www.earthday.net/
- Racism – www.nccri.ie/index.html
- Human rights – www.amnesty.ie/amnesty/live/irish/default.asp
Obtaining and printing out the full text of important international documents, e.g.:
- UN Declaration of Human Rights – http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/
- Declaration on the Right to Development – http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/41/a41r128.htm
- Genocide Convention – http://www.un.org/millennium/law/iv-1.htm
Linking with others who have similar interests and sharing ideas, activities, experiences and resources, e.g.:
Sourcing detailed ideas and suggestions for classroom or workshop activities on a host of issues from human rights to celebrating various ‘international days’ to ordering appropriate resources on a huge variety of subjects. Many of these ideas and suggestions can be printed out free from other sites and are also available on this site.
Accessing views and opinions
Accessing the views and opinions of any Third World organisations and networks which are usually difficult to access, e.g.:
- Inter-African Network for Human Rights and Development – http://africa.oneworld.net