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Absolute Advantage

An advantage that a country has in producing certain goods or services relative to all or many other countries due to specific factors of production at its disposal.  This could include rich farmland and a favourable climate for agricultural production, or a highly educated labour force for high-tech manufacturing.

24th Oct 2017

Absolute and Relative Poverty

Absolute poverty refers to a set standard which is the same in all countries and does not change over time. The concept of absolute poverty is that there are minimum standards below which no-one anywhere in the world should fall below. Relative poverty refers to falling behind most others in the community.  In relation to […]

Absolute Poverty Line

The income or expenditure level below which a minimum nutritionally adequate diet plus essential non-food requirements are not affordable. The most common absolute poverty line is US$1-a-day and the US$2-a-day line. $1-a-day Poverty Line – The international poverty line for absolute poverty set by the World Bank in 1990, and adjusted for various purchasing power […]

Access to Safe Water

The percentage of a population with reasonable means of getting safe water – either treated surface water or clean untreated water from springs, wells, or protected boreholes.

Adult Illiteracy

Percentage of the population aged 15 years and older who cannot, with understanding, read and write a simple statement about their everyday life.

Adult Literacy Rate

Percentage of persons aged 15 and over who can read and write at a basic level.

Affirmative Action

An American public policy approach that aims to eliminate the current effects of past discrimination.

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)

A set of symptoms and infections considered to be the result of damage to the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

AIDS Orphans

Children and adolescents under 18 years who have lost one or both parents to AIDS. Those who have lost both parents are often called double orphans.

AIDS-related Discrimination

The deliberate exclusion of those infected or perceived to be infected with HIV and/or AIDS.

Aids-related Stigma

Refers to a pattern of prejudice, discounting, discrediting, and discrimination directed at people that have or are perceived to have HIV and/or AIDS. The stigma can also be directed towards family members related to the infected person.

Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs)

Antiretroviral Treatment/Therapy (ART) are medications for the treatment of infection by retrovirus, primarily HIV that can work to inhibit the weakening of and sometimes even strengthen the immune system, protecting patients from developing opportunistic infections and allowing for increased life expectancy.


An official policy of racial segregation formerly practiced in the Republic of South Africa, involving political, legal, and economic discrimination against non-whites.

Basic Education

Education intended to meet basic learning needs; it includes instruction at the first or foundation level, on which subsequent learning can be based.

Bilateral Aid

Financial or material assistance provided to an individual developing country by a single donor country (as distinguished from multilateral aid, which is given to a country by an international organisation such as the EU or UN).

Birth Rate

The number of live births in a year expressed as a percentage of the population or per 1,000 people.

Brain Drain

The mass emigration of a country’s highly skilled and professional class, generally due to poverty, lack of opportunity, conflict or political instability.

Carbon Tax

The public’s recognition of global warming has driven lawmakers around the world to negotiate greenhouse-gas reductions. Carbon tax is one of two major market-based options to lower emissions.

CEDAW – The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

CEDAW adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, is often described as an International Bill of Rights for women. Consisting of a preamble and 30 articles, it defines what constitutes discrimination against women and sets up an agenda for national action to end such discrimination.

Climate Change

Climate Change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years.

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