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Cold War, The

The global state of tension and military rivalry that existed from 1945 to 1990 involving the United States and the former Soviet Union and their allies.

24th Oct 2017


A firm obligation, expressed in writing and backed by the necessary funds, undertaken by an official donor to provide specified assistance to a recipient country or a multilateral organization.

Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC)

The CRC was agreed to by the UN General Assembly in 1989.  The Convention rests on four basic principles: non-discrimination (article 2); best interests of the child (article 3); the child’s right to life, survival and development (article 5); and respect for the views of the child (article 12).


When talking about poverty, the term ‘corruption’ usually refers either to bribes taken by judges, policemen, or other local government officers in developing nations, or to large-scale, deliberate mismanagement of money higher up in the government. Both of these actions take a large economic toll on the poor.

Crude Birth Rate

Annual number of births per 1,000 population.

Crude Death Rate

Annual number of deaths per 1,000 population.

Cycle of Poverty

A phenomenon where poor families become trapped in poverty for generations and with limited access to critical resources, such as education and financial services, subsequent generations are also impoverished.


Acronym for Development Assistance Committee. The DAC is the principal body through which the OECD deals with issues related to aid and co-operation with developing countries.  There are 23 members, comprising the world’s major aid donors.

Daily Calorie Requirement

The average number of calories needed to sustain normal levels of activity and health, taking into account age, sex, body weight and climate. It amounts to about 2,350 calories per person per day.

Daily per capita calories supply

The calorie equivalent of the net food supply (local production plus imports minus exports) in a country, divided by the population, per day.

Death Rate

The number of deaths in a year expressed as a percentage of the population or per 1,000 people.

Debt Relief

Cancellation of debts owed by developing nations to industrialised nations or institutions such as the World Bank, in order to allow the government to shift funds toward social development.


The permanent clearing of forestland for all agricultural uses and for settlements.  It does not include other alterations such as selective logging.

Dependency Ratio

The ratio of the population defined as dependent – those under 15 and over 65 – to the working age population, aged 15-64.

Developing Countries

Countries in which many people have a low economic standard of living. Also called the ‘Third World’, the ‘South’ and ‘less developed’ countries.

Ecological Footprinting

Ecological Footprinting is a measure of human demand on the earth’s ecosystems. It compares human demand with planet earth’s ecological capacity to regenerate.

Economic Development

Raising the productive capacities of societies, in terms of their technologies (more efficient tools and machines), technical cultures (knowledge of nature, research and capacity to develop improved technologies), and the physical, technical and organisational capacities and skills of those engaged in production.

Economic Growth

A continued increase in the size of an economy (it’s GDP), i.e. a sustained increase in output over a period.

Education for All (EFA)

Provision of basic education in the sense of "expanded vision" proclaimed in the World Declaration on Education for All adopted by the World Conference on Education for All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs (Jomtien, Thailand, March 1990).

Ethical Consumption

Ethical consumerism is the intentional purchase of products and services that the customer considers to be made ethically. This may mean with minimal harm to or exploitation of humans, animals and/or the natural environment.

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