The following framework is an output of the Development Education Commission (1999), which was established to review experiences and strategies in Britain and Ireland as well as to identify opportunities for future educational work in support of development and human rights education (and global citizenship) based on social justice.
The core framework has particular application in schools and other educational institutions, but is the basis for raising questions about a wide range of structures including business, trade unions, religious organisations, non-governmental organisations, youth groups, community groups, the market, the media and the state itself. It is also the basis for questions about the relationship between civil society and ‘education’.
To enable wider debate the commission constructed a core framework. It aims:
- to build on core dispositions and values which provide a basis for clarifying underlying principles…and responding to change
- to engage ideas and understandings and build capabilities and skills which are part of lifelong learning.
- to highlight essential experiences which motivate enquiry, stimulate creativity and provide context for action.
The framework offers a foundation and a context for ethical decisions and behaviours which respect the nature and interdependent world in which we live, which respect the rights of and dignity of others and thus incorporate implicitly an international perspective.
A note on using frameworks for teaching international development issues
Frameworks such as this should be integrated into ‘local’ initiatives and planning for the four dimensions should pay particular attention to:
- The need to be clearer about Dispositions and Values at a policy level and, in particular, institutions such as schools. This needs to be the focus of open debate, not left to the assumptions of tradition…it therefore has to engage civil society at large. Institutions need to develop collective skills based on this awareness so as to maintain principles, yet respond to change. How should this be done? What models should we build on?
- The need to keep away from knowledge-centred approaches. The scope of knowledge is rapidly increasing; young people need skills for lifelong learning. There is a need for everyone to have access to complex understandings which affect their everyday social, economic and political life. Many of the issues raised by sustainable development for example, are based on complex inter-relationships, yet they need to be made accessible to all. The creativity needed to engage with Millennium Development Goals and the Sustainable Development Goals requires more than ‘knowing it’.
- The need to move away from the notion of using the education system to ‘manufacture’ pre-determined attitudes. The process has to be more dynamic and more inclusive. Young people need skills to respond to situations as they arise in their lifetime. Such situations are tending to grow in complexity and scale as we experience increasingly global economic, social and political systems; and as we understand more of the global nature of environmental systems.
- The need to think more creatively about the links between managed learning and the experiences of life [including learning institutions themselves] and how we increase access by offering more of an experiential framework for learning.
The four dimensions framework: education for world citizenship & democracy
Rather than being prescriptive, the framework below should be integrated into local initiatives and activity planning.
Essential Learning – the four key dimensions
Respect for self – in a just & democratic society respect for self is central to the flourishing of the well-being of both the individual and the wider community. Respecting oneself brings both the capacity to act autonomously & to be self-motivated. It is an essential pre-requisite to have respect for others & to be concerned about their concerns.
Respect for others – in a pluralist democracy the disposition to respect & care for others is central to living interdependently. The positive relationships forged among individuals & groups are essential to the development of qualities such as cooperation, interdependence and respect for a diversity of people & cultures, which allows us to live and work in the realities of the world of today – and the future.
A sense of social responsibility – in a society geared to the general well-being of all, it is essential to develop a commitment to social responsibility based on the critical scrutiny of information and evidence within an awareness of power relationships, principles and traditions. Such a disposition to social responsibility should also entail a commitment to the sustainable use of the environment.
A sense of belonging – world citizenship depends on a disposition to be part of the enterprise as a whole, a commitment to common purposes that goes beyond personal interests, a willingness to participate as an active citizen, engendered by an understanding of the world as a place where each individual feels valued, and where both group & individual concerns and opinions are respected.
A commitment to learning – in a world increasingly characterised by change and adaptation the need to have a disposition to learning, to making new connections and new meanings, is fundamental. This would also need commitment to procedural values such as: willingness to adopt a critical stance towards information; willingness to give reasons why one holds a view or acts in a certain way, and to expect similar reasons from others; respect for evidence in holding and forming opinions; willingness to be open to the possibility of changing one’s own attitudes and values in the light of the evidence.
Communication Skills – listening, discussion, oral presentation, debate, interviewing, writing for a purpose, defending a position. Ability to express one’s own interests, beliefs and viewpoints through an appropriate medium. Ability to perceive and understand the interests, beliefs and viewpoints of others. Ability to exercise empathy.
Intellectual Skills – researching and evaluating information and ideas, interpreting the media, identification of bias and prejudice, recognition of stereotypes and discrimination, organising information using concepts and ideas. Applying reasoning skills to problems and issues. Communicative competence across a range of media and uses of language. Ability to perceive the consequences of taking or not taking specific actions in a particular context.
Social Skills – capacity for the development of satisfying and interactive human relations in different cultural and power contexts. Taking responsibility, making decisions, establishing democratic working relationships, sustaining dialogue within and across cultures Action Skills – ability to participate in group decision-making and effectively engage in democratic action to try to influence and/or change social situations.
Of relationships and power – the ways in which power relationships share people’s lives; their civil, political and social rights and responsibilities; their status as citizens; the implications of an increasingly global and interdependent society; the nature of economic, social, cultural and political relationships and how they affect people.
Of technological change – the opportunities and difficulties of rapid change in international technology and of the danger that it will continue to benefit some and disadvantage many, thus maintaining rather than reducing current inequalities.
Of disparities in human living conditions – the continued existence of inequality at local and global scales and of different perspectives on such divides; the values base of these perspectives and the implications for popular understanding of the issues.
Of the concepts of democracy, governance & citizenship – democratic practices and procedures; the rights of citizens here and elsewhere; the history of the struggle for democracy and the need to nurture it as well as to seek change for it to be more inclusive; ways in which global governance should/could develop.
Of cultural identities, conflict & conciliation – the concept of identity and its implications for individuals, communities, states and internal co-operation; the dangers of ethnocentricity and ways in which it fuels conflict and aggression; different experiences of conciliation and the skills necessary to achieve it.
Of rights and responsibilities – the principles of equality, participation and democracy; ways in which rights are matched with responsibilities and the implications of this locally and globally.
Of gender identities – the nature of discrimination and responses to it (including legal frameworks); ‘stories’ which have been hidden from history because of gender discrimination and of the implications of gender issues for people’s experiences – here & elsewhere.
Of sustainable development – the impact of human action and inaction on the environment here and elsewhere; the concept of responsibilities to future generations not yet born; the global nature of natural environmental systems and our links to such systems; proposals and experiences to improve sustainability.
Essential experiences, which foster the development of dispositions, ideas, skills and actions, should be a feature of all educational opportunities. These include:
- Working co-operatively
- Working independently
- Giving and receiving feedback
- Participation in decision-making
- Feeling valued
- Sharing responsibility
- Knowing a sense of achievement
- Making connections
While learners should regularly experience many of these as part of their everyday work there should also be opportunities that offer experiences to be made real in contexts other than the classroom. There should be real and/or simulated experiences of participation in decision-making and action in all four domains of power (economic, environmental, political & cultural) – at local, national, regional and global levels.
Such experiences could provide learners with theoretical and practical experiences of many agents of governance – firms, trade unions, consumer campaigns, local government departments, the courts, national parties, environmental protection agencies, development NGOs, media corporations, etc. Involvement in the institutions’ governance (e.g. through School Councils) should be cultivated as part of this experience.
Learners should also have opportunities for:
- group residential experiences
- joint ventures to enable dialogue and debate focusing on issues in the context of the past, present and future (in our own locality and further afield)
- taking responsibility (for others) in tasks undertaken on a regular basis in schools, home and the community
- using Information Communication Technology (ICT) to extend global understandings
Extracts above have been adapted from Essential Learning for Everyone: raising the debate about civil society, world citizenship and the role of education edited by Colm Regan and Scott Sinclair (1999), The Development Education Commission (DEC [Birmingham] and 80:20 Educating and Acting for a Better World [Ireland]). For more information contact firstname.lastname@example.org